Riders for Health [YouTube]

What good is a hospital if you can’t get to it? And what good are vaccines if they never reach the people who need them? For millions of Africans living in rural villages far from medical facilities and inaccessible to four-wheeled vehicles, isolation can lead to disease and death. Riders for Health, a U.K.-based organization with roots in the world of high-speed motorcycle racing, is determined to change that. The organization equips local health workers with motorcycles, trains them in extreme off-road riding, and supplies the parts, maintenance, and fuel.

via Good Magazine

Jacqueline Novogratz on "Patient Capital" [Video]

Jacqueline Novogratz [, founder of Acumen Fund,] is pioneering new ways of tackling poverty. In her view, traditional charity rarely delivers lasting results. Her solution, outlined here through a series of revealing personal stories, is “patient capital”: support for “bottom of the pyramid” businesses which the commercial market alone couldn’t provide. The result: sustainable jobs, goods, services — and dignity — for the world’s poorest.

What is “Patient Capital” anyway?

According to Joel Makower:

The term describes an amorphous but emerging set of business models. It is rooted in the notion that pursuing maximum growth and maximum shareholder value often dilute a company’s social and environmental mission, and that achieving financial, social, and environmental benefits can take time. At its forefront are companies like Patagonia and Newman’s Own — for-profit businesses with strong social and philanthropic missions not likely to meet The Street’s purely financial expectations. Right behind them are countless companies whose founders and investors support the values of sustainable business, clean technology, and “local living economies.” Some of these are “traditional” businesses in that their structures and financial models are much like conventional businesses. Others harness innovative new models, such as “B corps” — private companies that donate all of their profits to charity — the Newman’s Own model, since replicated by others.

Thomas Friedman’s Take (‘Patient’ Capital for an Africa That Can’t Wait from NYTimes)

Patient capital has all the discipline of venture capital — demanding a return, and therefore rigor in how it is deployed — but expecting a return that is more in the 5 to 10 percent range, rather than the 35 percent that venture capitalists look for, and with a longer payback period.

Appropriate Technology Roundup #14 [09/28/07]

  1. Syringe disposal solution in a soda can from Little Devices that Could

    Syringe disposal solution in a soda can

    This design called Antivirus was the winner of the People’s Choice Award at this year’s Index Awards.

    The designer of Antivirus – a cap to protect was inspired by her own experience as a young girl in a Singaporean refugee camp, where she received a vaccination with an infectious needle, making her sick for a long time.

    The cap is mounted on readily available beverage cans for segregation and isolation of used needles which are secured inside the permanently sealed can, preventing re-use of needles. The design embodies an element of sustainability in that it uses a waste product available even in low income countries.

  2. Potato Chip Ingredient Provides Longevity Boost to Concrete from Treehugger

    Who would’ve thought that the flavoring that helps give “salt & vinegar” chips their tasty tang could also help protect concrete from water damage? A new study by Awni Al-Otoom and his colleagues in Jordan has revealed that sodium acetate — a chemical commonly used in flavored chips (and a variety of other products and processes) — can work as a cheap and effective concrete sealant by providing a waterproof coating.

  3. Subway Sunlight Project from Inhabitat

    Sunlight transport systems are an Inhabitat favorite, as they make it possible to channel actual natural light into dark places and cast it through a fixture. The Subway Light Project is the first we’ve seen that incorporates sunlight transfer in public urban art, to save the city money on energy, and infuse public space with a good mood boost. Parsons student Caroline Pham, who designed the Subway Light Project, won first place in the school’s 2007 Sustainable Design Review. Her concept uses sunlight capture devices and fiber optics cables to channel sunlight into the enclosed corridors of the subway.

  4. Made From Scrap from Laughing Squid

    Made From Scrap is an emerging socially responsible company created around artists, instructors, and students, those who want to learn, investigate, tinker, recycle, teach, meet, and have fun.

    Our goal is to inspire and foster the Bay Area’s growing community of resourceful do-it-yourselfers, crafters, and artists. Our focus is recycling and how it can be more than throwing something into a blue bin. In our imaginations, it’s dynamic, immeasurable, sustainable, and a catalyst for developing community.

  5. Metal Casting from MAKE

    Pretty pics

  6. Watercone – An Ingenious Way To Turn Salt Water Into Fresh Water from The Sietch

    The Watercone is an ingenious device that can take salty water and turn it into fresh water using only the power of the sun. The nice thing about this device is it is bone simple, uses the sun instead of fossil fuel, and is cheap to make and easy to use.

  7. Used Computer’s Parts from haha.nu

    Instead of throwing old non-working mouse or keyboard, these guys from TechWeb built cool sculptures of buildings, planes and toys.

  8. Do SUNSLATES Answer NIMBYs? from Jetson Green

    Solar Shingles for folks who think panels are ugly.

  9. A solar refrigerator for developing world from CNET

    The Solar Turbine Group [in Cambridge, MA] is trying to bring refrigeration to emerging nations by harnessing the power of the sun.

    The organization, which consists largely of MIT alumni, has devised a solar thermal generator that can be brought to market for $12,000 or less. A typical system can generate 600 watts of electricity or 20 kilowatts of energy for heating and cooling, according to Sam White, director for STG. The same system can also produce both at the same time, albeit less of each.

    A good chunk of the systems are made of easily available car parts and plumbing supplies. STG currently have project sites at Bethel High-School and the village of Ha Teboho in Lesotho

IDDS Part II: Brandon Pitcher on Tech at Gaviotas

If it is possible,we will do it today. If it is impossible, it will take a little longer
– Paolo Lugari (Founder of Gaviotas)

Where in the World in Gaviotas Brandon Pitcher, a renewable energy developer who specializes in sustainable construction, spoke to the IDDS attendees about Las Gaviotas and the Zero Emissions Research & Initiatives (ZERI).

Las Gaviotas, a community called a model of sustainable development by the UN, was founded in the 1970’s by a group of scientists, teachers and artists in the llanos region of Colombia. The 200 residents have built what many consider a utopia based on sustainability, appropriate technology and a creative use of resources. The reality check to this fairy tale, however, is that you need a military escort to get there as the area is surrounded by armed guerrillas. Hey, nothing’s perfect, right?

ZERI is a global NGO whose primary motivation is simple: to use waste materials as resources and to promote sustainable development. One of their major projects has been a large scale reforestation effort at Las Gaviotas.

The story of the success of the reforestation project is fairly extraordinary. The Gaviotans seem to have benefited from a healthy dose of serendipity coupled with ready access to super smart people. The llanos is an inhospitable tropical savannah. The soil is acidic (pH: 4), rainfall is low, and the sun is scorching. It’s a no-man’s land for trees and animals. Yet with the advice of soil scientists, foresters and a commercial pine cultivation operation in Venezuela, the Gaviotans were able to plant Caribbean pine; acres and acres of them. (With their new souped up planting machine, they can plant one tree per second, 24 hours a day, three months a year.) The Central American trees were not native to the area and couldn’t grow in the existing soil. However, with careful application of Mycorrhiza fungi to the roots (to digest the llanos soil), the trees thrived.

Gaviotas Community Building
Gaviotas Community Building viewed from Truck. Photo Source: Hollister Knowlton

As they grew and the pine needles shed periodically, the soil pH increased to 5 and could support a wider range of plant life. Here is where the really interesting thing started to happen. The new tree cover generated a different micro-climate. Wide expanses of shaded areas slowed evaporation after rainfall; water had more time to soak into the soil and replenish the ground water supply. There was a 10% increase in precipitation. The rainforest started to creep back and choke out the non-indigenous species of pine. Anteaters, birds and other animals followed. It’s a fascinating study of forest ecology and the role that pioneer species play in the dynamics of ecosystems.

Before I wax lyrical about succession in forests (ah I miss biology classes), let’s move on to how all this goodness helped the Gaviotas community keep going. In the early years of Gaviotas, the community had dire issues with financial sustainability. The technologies that they created with ingenious and innovative, but finding a reliable stream of customers proved more difficult than they’d anticipated.

Through some research, Paolo Lugari (the founder) discovered that there was an increasing global demand for natural pine resin “especially for use in quality paints, glues, cosmetics, perfumes, and medicines” [ref: Alan Weisman’s book on Gaviotas]. From the Venezuelans, they learned that they had a viable product if they invested in Caribbean pine. The resin factory that now exists in the community was made possible with a $2 million investment from the Japanese government through an extension fund provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. The initial planting was 8,000 hectares.

Resin Factory
Resin Factory. Photo Source: Hollister Knowlton

In cooperation with the Columbian government, Gaviotas is now planting the 6.4 million hectares of land that surrounds the community. They are pushing for a rate of 10,000 HA/year. Interestingly enough, the military sees the project as being important to national security. Employment opportunities for indigenous farmers in the area mean folks have less reason to grow cocaine elsewhere.

Other Developments at Gaviotas

Bottles being labeled. Photo Source: Hollister Knowlton
  • The improvement in water sources that came with their reforestation work gave the Gaviotans another idea. Why not bottle the water and sell it? Nearby residents don’t have good access to non-contaminated water stocks and bottled water from Bogotá is too expensive. The trick for them will be finding an environmentally friendly way to do this, especially given the recent backlash against bottled water. They are looking into biodegradable plastics, specifically yucca based starch plastic. A currently available option is a GMO-based corn plastic, but they want to stay away from GMO right now.

    Another idea they are kicking around for the plastic bottles is to make them interlocking, like Legos so that empty bottles could become toys or building blocks for children.

  • They are currently planting jatropha for biodiesel production.
  • Gaviotas won a world environment prize for innovation in packaging. “Resin extracted from the pine is drained into boxes made of recycled cardboard” [ref].
  • They are linking their reforestation work to carbon sequestration initiatives which opens up an additional funding mechanism for the community.

An abbreviated and paraphrased version of the question and answer session

Q. How does the reforestation work?

A pine tree planted today in the llanos will take 18 months to get to maturity and will be cut down after 6-10 years. Without special attention from the foresters, the trees don’t seed and are instead outcompeted by native species.

Q. Monoculture, eh? Isn’t that bad?

It is a monoculture, but with the exception of using the fungus to help the seedlings take root, etc., their operation is as organic as possible. (I think a big issue with monoculture is the battle a farmer has to wage to keep them that way, generally using copious amounts of herbicides. ) Because the Gaviotans have so much land available to them and because they are not trying to maintain a one plant species equilibrium, they can allow nature to take to its course for the most part. When one section of land starts to be overrun by “encroaching” forest species, they can move on to the next chunk. Slash and burn in reverse.

Q. Gaviotas, not so well known in Colombia. Why?
A. They don’t want to be known as “a model for the world” internally. They’ve generally been left alone by the guerrillas – there hasn’t been a kidnapping in 22 years – and too much extra attention would likely change that.

Q. Are they planning to sell their bottled water overseas?
They want to, but they are having “bacterial issues” with the water; it has a high bacterial count. Luckily these are either beneficial or neutral bacteria, but having any bacteria doesn’t fly with the US FDA or its equivalents in Japan and Europe.

Q: Founder effect issues? Can Gaviotas continue without the founder?
Paolo Lugari now lives in Bogota. The community members in Gaviotas essentially takes care of business themselves.

Q. Who is doing the R&D?
They are. They try to minimize the number of outside experts coming in except for certain things. For instance, the biodiesel project required outside input from the University of Colorado, et al.

Related Links:
The village that could save the planet
How two men plan to extend the ecological miracle that is Gaviotas, Colombia, across the rest of the Third World.

The ZERI Children’s Stories
Transcript of Gaviotas Film
Resurrecting the Book Club: Gaviotas (Part 1)

Full Series of Posts:
International Development Design Summit: Jock Brandis
IDDS Part II: Brandon Pitcher on Tech at Gaviotas
IDDS 2007 Part III: A List of Projects
International Development Design Summit in the News

Building with Water Jugs

Carlos Poza

The AIDG interns have been creative in thinking about how to expand the Intern House. Finding an abundance of used 5 gallon water jugs that have slight cracks in them, the interns started scratching their heads. Why not use them as a beautiful wall that lets light in? Steve Crowe, the Guatemala Program Director, will soon have a new office, flanked with a bamboo wall, a brick/recycled glass bottle wall, and this to-be-built water jug wall.

I quickly searched the web and I couldn’t find anything remotely like it–so I think we’re pushing the boundaries of recycled water jug eco-construction and possibly doing something completely new and different. Pictured above is Carlos Poza, an all-star volunteer who has been helping the interns with the eco-expansion project, with the jugs. I’ll post more when it’s finished!

Building with Bottles at AIDG Guatemala
Progress on the eco-construction project in Guatemala.

Cuba 1976 [Video]

1976 by RJD2 and Leftchannel

1976 journeys through the ghettos, farmlands and lifestyles of Cuba as scenes build and unfold blurring the distinction between the propaganda and the everyday reality of struggling to survive.

The concept of the video was to capture the flair of the Latin influence in the song “1976” by RJD2.

From Media Storm

Also from Media Storm
Kingsley’s Crossing 20min 26 sec
The piece documents the voyage of 23 year old Kingsley and other African immigrants voyage into Europe. Very beautiful photography.
MSNBC: Behind the Scenes

Bloodline: AIDS and Family 12 min 06 sec
Story of AIDS and the family in Sub-Saharan Africa

Black Market 10min 22sec
Illegal Trade of Animals in Asia

Finding a Way Home: Two Years After Katrina 10min 27sec
This audio slideshow is told from the point of view of families affected by the storm.

International Development Design Summit in the News

New York Times: Low Technologies, High Aims

Andrew Revkin who often writes on climate change and the environment for the Times covered the conference.

The workshop was developed over the last year by [Amy Smith, Dr. Kenneth Pickar] and others after a meeting to discuss a “design revolution” — a shift in focus among companies, universities, investors and scientists toward attacking problems that hamper development in the world’s poorest places.

“Nearly 90 percent of research and development dollars are spent on creating technologies that serve the wealthiest 10 percent of the world’s population,” Ms. Smith said. “The point of the design revolution is to switch that.”

She added: “There are several different places where that revolution has to take place. We started thinking, ‘How do we train engineers so they might start thinking of this as a field of engineering they’d want to pursue?’ ”

Boston Globe: Fast, cheap, and in control

World Changing: South-South Design Flourishes at MIT Summit

IDDS put forth incredibly basic design criteria. Teams were required to create innovations to serve a clear development need, to use locally available materials and to do so at a low cost. Students were not asked to create business models for their inventions, but simply to use the four-week period to create working prototypes and demonstrate proof of concept. Nearly all of the end-products offered fresh takes on old problems

Treehugger: International Development Design Summit: Design to Save the World

Good Magazine: The Nov/Dec 2007 Issue of Good Magazine just came in the mail and they did a huge spread on the D-Lab: “Low Tech Laboratory”. They haven’t updated their site yet, but I’ll post the link when it’s up.

Practical, Actionable Innovation Swarms MIT Design Gathering
from Popular Mechanics Blog

Full Series of Posts:
International Development Design Summit: Jock Brandis
IDDS Part II: Brandon Pitcher on Tech at Gaviotas
IDDS 2007 Part III: A List of Projects
International Development Design Summit in the News

International Development Design Summit: Jock Brandis

[Today is catch-up day. I have a huge chunk of backlogged posts that I’m going to try to get out.]

This past summer, the first International Development Design Summit (IDDS) was held at MIT and organized by Caltech, MIT and Olin College. The summit brought together 50 students, faculty and community partners from 16 countries to build technologies that can improve the lives of the world’s poorest people.

Jock Brandis, one of the founders of the Full Belly Project (and inventor of the Universal Nut Sheller) spoke to the group on July 18th. Prior to his involvement with Fully Belly, Brandis worked for over 2 decades in the film industry, principally as a gaffer. In 2001, he visited Mali with a friend in the Peace Corps to help repair a small village’s water treatment system. There he saw women working for hours to shell peanuts by hand. Some of the women told him that he could really help their village if he could find them an affordable peanut sheller.

Peanut Sheller in La Union, Philippines
Peanut Sheller in La Union, Philippines

In a nutshell (pun intended) that’s how it all started: with a trip and a promise. When he came back to the States, he soon discovered that small scale cheap peanut shellers did not exist. He couldn’t go back to Mali empty-handed so with the help of several cool friends with cooler skills (a master at fiberglass, an understanding pal with a machine shop, etc.), he went on to invent one.

The resulting $50 device, made of two pieces of concrete and a few simple metal parts, can shell 40-50 kg of peanuts per hour. By contrast, a woman or child can shell on average 1.5 kg of peanuts per hour. A set of fiberglass molds to reproduce the machine costs between $270-500. If good quality sand is used, a sheller can last 25-30 years with little maintenance.

Diagram of the shelling machine
Diagram of the shelling machine [larger image]

The name change from Peanut Sheller to Universal Nut Sheller came with the discovery that the machine could deal with other lucrative crops such as jatropha, coffee and shea in addition to peanuts.

A very brief synopsis of the process that he went through:

  1. Initial prototyping, including making the fiberglass/epoxy molds
  2. Testing demo and getting feedback from the endusers/experts (the women)
  3. Implementing design changes/rebuilding with the involvement of key connectors
  4. Further testing
  5. Repeating steps 2-4 as needed

Now Brandis is very interested in design standards that can be used by appropriate technology inventors to create other machines for agricultural (or other) use. The idea is to have a single chassis where interchangeable parts can be built onto it. In the video below, he talks about the idea and shows off the Pedal Powered Sheller at the Popular Mechanics office in NYC.

Duration: 3min 26sec


Chassis at IDDS

Related Links:
Instructables: How to make a universal nut sheller

Full Series of Posts:
International Development Design Summit: Jock Brandis
IDDS Part II: Brandon Pitcher on Tech at Gaviotas
IDDS 2007 Part III: A List of Projects
International Development Design Summit in the News