International environmental agreements
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Human Development Indicators
Literacy (population age 15 and over that can read and write)
Total population: 92.5% (male: 92.4%, female: 92.6%; 2003 estimate)
1899-1903 – “The War of the Thousand Days”: around 120,000 people die in civil war between Liberals and Conservatives. Panama becomes an independent state.
1930 – Liberal President Olaya Herrera elected by coalition; social legislation introduced and trade unions encouraged.
1946 – Conservatives return to power.
1948 – Assassination of left-wing mayor of Bogota ignites riots.
1948-57 – La Violencia. 250,000-300,000 killed in civil war.
1958 – Conservatives and Liberals agree to form National Front in a bid to end the civil war; other parties banned.
1965 – Leftist National Liberation Army (ELN) and Maoist People’s Liberation Army (EPL) founded.